Thursday, June 11, 2020
Learning how to write a book synopsis is a very important part of the business of creative writing and can help connect you with the right literary agent who will champion your work. Your novel synopsis should communicate the spirit and basic plot of your story without being an exhaustive catalog of your entire novel. Learning how to craft a book proposal and novel synopsis and tailoring it to a specific literary agent is a vital skill every professional writer must learn.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Helpful Social Study Essay SamplesIf you are trying to learn some grammar, there are a number of effective and good tips to help you study with the use of writing samples. Writing is one of the most basic skills that is needed to understand the world. It is essential to do a lot of practice with writing, when studying, especially if you are planning to get a job that requires an advanced level of written communication.You can find a number of good books and software that can help you make the best of your writing abilities. There are several tips that can help you improve your writing. These include following a few guidelines on how to write good social study essay samples. The tips will help you get better at what you are trying to write and use the right vocabulary for sentences and words that you might not use at first.One popular tip for those who are struggling with grammar is to write as many sentences as possible, using the same language. The goal is to try to create a consist ent sentence structure that will make it easier for you to tell what is being said. The grammar will get better when you use the same words throughout the piece and use the correct grammatical construction.If you have a hard time finding words that will be appropriate in an essay samples, you may want to look for alternatives that will come up more often. Many word references in the text will give the reader a sense of familiarity with what is being said. This will make it easier for you to write because you will find yourself doing the actions that will be used in the conclusion of the study.When you are writing the sample, it is a good idea to make sure that you are able to put the 'e' before a word. This will allow you to keep all of the 'e's' out of the paper. Some writers do not know that this rule exists, but it is important to write your pieces correctly.It is very important to be able to use the common spelling mistakes in the writing. It is important that you will be able t o type the word correctly. You can often learn these common spelling mistakes by browsing online.For those who need help with grammar, there are a number of essays that can help you improve your skills. With a little practice, you will find that you are able to use a better vocabulary, use the proper punctuation and adverbs. These are all steps that will make your writing and understanding of grammar more effective.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
The Social Impact of Slavery on the Caribbean Society In order for us to understand the Caribbean, we must acknowledge the tremendous social impact slavery placed upon the islands. We must not only consider the practice of slavery dating back to the indigenous peoples, but from what the introduction of the African slave trade did to the islands economically as well as culturally. In this paper let me reflect on slavery in the Caribbean not from an economical standpoint but, from the racial or what Knight calls Ã¢â¬Ëcomplextional mutationsÃ¢â¬â¢ its social impact on society. Let us discuss historian Benitez-RojoÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to the Caribbean, he tends to reject a single cultural definition of the Caribbean, believing that all the islands haveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The settlers represented a cross section of the Spanish society, and as the Spanish imposed themselves on the local communities two things happened. 1) the emergence of the mestizo: a racial mixture of Spanish and Indian and 2) the extermination of the native due to famine and disease. Later through the slave trade and the emergence of the plantation society the African became present creating the Creole. What follows then- is the Caribbean people- whoÃ¢â¬â¢s many ancestors were brought from Africa as slaves, they share in common: the experience of Ã¢â¬Ëextraordinary collision of raceÃ¢â¬â¢ which in turn developed what we today call the West Indian, Puerto Rican, Jamaican, in short the people of the Caribbean. Thus, Benitez-Rojo and Knight explain to us the Africanization of the island, or to what is called the Creole. The Creole, a person who has been separated from the center of colonial power, within all the islands, share to a certain extent hybrid forms of the same religion, rhythms, dances, food and other cultural traditions. In attempting to explain the racial/color complextites of the Caribbean as stated earlier Knight utilizes the term Ã¢â¬Ëcomplextional mutationsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding this term when placed upon the human race came in over 25 possible hybrid variations. Within the casteShow MoreRelated A Caribbean Legacy Essay1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages A Caribbean Legacy The notions of slavery, colonialism, and race are indelible aspects of Caribbean history. In order to fathom the current political, social, economic, and cultural climate of the Caribbean one must engage in a critical study and understanding of the impact slavery has had in modern day Caribbean societies. The modes and intricacies of modern day Caribbean societies are intimately related to the plantation systems of the colonial period, which welcomed the arrival of the largestRead MoreHistory: Sociology and Caribbean1708 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesduring one period of time in their historic accounts. For Caribbean states, this period was also a mark of re-development and re-establishment of economies and societies. Emancipation in the Caribbean was the catalyst for many positive steps in the future but also setback in humanity with respect to human rights. In this paper one will analyze the structural techniques and traits used to facilitate the construction of Caribbean societies, pos t emancipation. Furthermore, one will also identify theRead MoreEssay about Life of a Slave in the Caribbean1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin the Caribbean The experience of Caribbean slavery is vital in understanding the contemporary social structure of the region. It was the introduction of an estimated four million Africans to the Caribbean which made these islands melting pots of culture and society. Since Africans had such a tremendous impact on the region, it is important that we recognize the nature of slavery and how it transformed their lives. Although most agree that the institution was dehumanizing, the social relationsRead MoreEssay on The Caribbean Islands1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Caribbean The Caribbean, a region usually exoticized and depicted as tropical and similar in its environmental ways, cannot be characterized as homogenous. Each individual island has their own diverse historical background when it comes to how and when they became colonized, which European country had the strongest influence on them, and the unique individual cultures that were integrated into one. The three authors Sidney W. Mintz, Antonio Benitez-Rojo, and Michelle Cliff, all and addressRead MoreThe Social, Cultural, and Economic Impact of Transatlantic Slave Trade714 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Social, Cultural, and Economic Impact of the Transatlantic Slave Trade Economic Incentives for Slavery Genery and Hogendorn (1974) proposed that the unlimited supply of land in the Americas demanded an unlimited supply of labor to maximize profits. Indentured servants from Europe were too few in number to exploit the amount of land available for development. Native Americans had been decimated by disease, massacre, and displacement and the few remaining were often hostile to the idea livingRead MoreThe Family Aspect Of The Quilt1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn a perfect world, the Caribbean is like a quilt that has been stitched together by a mother or grandmother. It eventually comes together to form a unique blanket that incorporates a multi-dimensional group of different pieces of colors and sizes in its final product. The maternal aspect of the quilt, represents the Euro-colonial influence that was responsible for the colonialization of the Caribbean region. All patches have their own unique shape and design, and eventually come together to makeRead MoreSummary Of AndrÃ ©s ResÃ ©n dezs The Other Slavery1011 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Slavery,Ã¢â¬ this word evokes images of West Africans picking cotton in the Southern United States or a kneeling man in chains asking, Ã¢â¬ Am I not a man and brother.Ã¢â¬ These conventional ideas of slavery dominate both the public perception of enslavement and scholarship. However, a new voice entered the examination of slavery: AndrÃ ©s ResÃ ©ndez. In The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America, ResÃ ©ndez challenges the conventional definition of slavery. ResÃ ©ndez presents a systemicRead MoreThe Haitian Revolution Essays1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof the prominent leaders of the Haitian revolution. He advocated for equality, fraternity and liberty. He was also well known for being a pioneer of the abolishment of slavery. According to The Caribbean: History of the Region and its People Ã¢â¬Å"the Haitian revolution transformed the very meaning of freedom, not just in the Caribbean but far beyond it, ushering a new vision of human rights.Ã¢â¬ Even though Haiti failed as an independent state they must be recognized as the pioneers of a black sovereigntyRead MoreEssay on Caribbean Society1353 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCaribbean Society An Essay on the Culture of Incarceration A suggestion was made, in the context of the classroom setting that an interesting assignment would be to question shoppers at a suburban mall about slavery in the Caribbean and to capture the responses on videotape. An initial thought in response to this suggestion was to wonder just how one would go about eliciting any sort of meaningful response from a likely ill-informed and possibly disinterested group of consumers in centralRead MoreEssay on Deviance and Society969 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaccepted norm or expected standards of behaviour of a society. The concept of deviance however has no standard definition, it is deemed to be culturally relative. That is to say that your culture (norms, values and morals) determine what you as an individual or your society deems deviant behaviour. Functionalist Findings on Deviance The functionalist sociologist would see deviance as a necessary evil for society to function. This may seem contradictory to their belief
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Debate Critique Paper Every four yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ citizens above the age of 18 get a chance to be a part of one of the single most important rights of being an American. And this right must be determined by two standing candidates in this yearÃ¢â¬â¢s presidential election. These two candidates have had their upÃ¢â¬â¢s and downÃ¢â¬â¢s but no matter what we think as an American voter we must choose at least one. To understand each candidate there must be a critique of their trustworthiness, logic, and emotional appeals. Both candidates have obviously shown all the aspects of trust to the American people based on how far they have made it in the election. In the first debate, Hillary and Trump are on the hot seat to show their relevance to be the next presidential candidate. And one of the most important parts of being president is to show they can be trusted. To show experience Trump relies on his businessman attributes, while Hillary relies on her experience as secretary of state , first lady, senator, etc. One thing that stuck out to me early in the debate is when Hillary brings up her granddaughters 2nd birthday which occurred on the day of the debate (3:00). This shows not only to the voters but to trump that she wants to see change, she wants her granddaughter to have a bright future. This not only gives the voters something to remember her by, but they can trust she will do everything to make America a safer place for future generations. Trump sees that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the experience, butShow MoreRelatedPresidential Election And Paint It Essay1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswriting weekly blog posts on a controversial issue. My topic was the Supreme Court which was arguably the most crucial aspect of this election cycle. With the passing of Antonin Scalia and as two judges reach retirement age, president elect Donald Trump will have the opportunity to appoint as many as three judges which would shift the entire Supreme Court to a complete conservative composition. Unfortunately, this means that the voices of many on the left will not be heard for years to come. UltimatelyRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Michelle Obamas Speech900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages A Rhetorical Analysis of Michelle ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s 2016 DNC Speech At the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, Michelle Obama the first lady at the time, was endorsing the democratic candidate, Hillary Clinton. Using her personal connection with the president and Hillary Clinton, Michelle Obama creates a more personal speech. With her credibility as first lady, use of her family and her platform she lead as first lady, she persuades the audience to spread Hillary ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign messageRead MoreRhetorical Analysis : How Tactically Is Applies Pathos, Ethos, And Logos1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat it will likely change minds? You must measure itÃ¢â¬â¢s through a multi-step analysis. A rhetorical analysis. A rhetoric analysis is a process by which a piece of writing is measured on Ã¢â¬Å"how tactically is applies pathos, ethos, and logosÃ¢â¬ , and how effectively it panders to its audience. If it fails to address the uses of all three appeals, and or it omits consideration of audience pandering, then it is not a rhetor ic analysis. Identified by Aristotle, Ethos, pathos, and logos, which are the three mostRead MoreAnalysis Of Hillary Clintons Illness Revealed By Dr. Ted Noel1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages What if you were told that the potential president of the United States, Hillary Clinton, had an illness that could possibly make her incapable of running the country? How would you react? Apparently there is more to Clinton than we know. This analysis will over view the YouTube video of Ã¢â¬Å"Hillary Clintons Illness RevealedÃ¢â¬ by Dr. Ted Noel. Noel goes in depth about ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s potential disease and his evidence he researched on incidents that make Clinton susceptible to being linked to ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MorePresidential Election Right Around The Corner1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnot voting. They see the choice between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton as a choice between the lesser of two evils. They feel as if both presidential candidates are untrustworthy and an adverse depiction of the coun try. It seems to be a very difficult decision facing the American people today. But as American citizens with the right to vote, everyone should utilize this privilege. After all, the future of the country is determined by it. In Hillary ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s DNC speech, she attempts to persuadeRead MoreSocial Media s Influence On Our Lives1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmainstream mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s opposition to Trump, I will argue that social media played an integral role in TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s election because the undermined importance of fact checking in social media allowed Trump to elicit reactions from his controversial tweets, providing him with free publicity, which facilitated communicating his views with the people. I will also refer to Brian L.OttÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that addresses the effects of Twitter on public discourse (59-62) while referring to Trump as a case study of the embodimentRead MoreMass Deportation Of Illegal Immigrants1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreformation has been one of t he hot topics in the 2016 election. Many have chosen which candidate to vote for based on their point of view on immigration and deportation matters. Some supported Donald Trump because he promised to deport all illegal immigrants if he becomes president while others supported Hillary Clinton because she was against mass deportation. In most cases, mass deportation threat has been focused on illegal Mexican immigrants; being the largest group of illegal immigrants and the proximity
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Table of Contents: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduction to Portfolio Ã¢â¬ ¢ Part A: Argumentative Reflection Essay Ã¢â¬ ¢ Part B: Cover letter: Major Revision - Major Revision Ã¢â¬ ¢ Part C: Cover letter: Major Revision - Major Revision In this class, I have learned that we are able to achieve any goal we want, if we give it the time and effort. It does not matter how much we have to write or how many assignments we are asked to do. If we work step by step and plan ahead, we will success in achieving our goal. Throughout this portfolio I will discuss how these assignments have helped me to incorporate various aspects of Student Learning Outcomes into my writing, and how I have revised the two of the major writing assignments. Part A: Discussion of Student LearningÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The course has facilitated the comprehension of various Student Learning Outcomes majorly Student Learning Outcome A, B, C, D and F. Student Learning Outcome A: The Student Learning Outcome A focuses on the practice of analyzing, composing and reflecting on pieces of writings and applying them to suite rhetorical situations. Through studying the course, I have gained these crucial skills that have led to significant improvement in the quality of writing created. One of the things that I have been able to particularly improve on was on accurate identification of the target audience. Accurate target identification has been enhanced by the various assignments that I have done throughout the English 110 course. Major Writing Assignment 1 has enabled me to reflect and analyze in order to come up with effective writing. The main objective of understanding the target audience is to facilitate the effective passing on of the intended information in a clear and brief manner. The importance of this learning outcome extends from just writing to speaking as well as I am now better placed to understand my target audience, analyze and reflect on the best way possible to pass on the intended massage. Student Learning Outcome B: This learning outcome is concerned with the viewing of writing as a social act focusing on the role of discourse communities at different levels such as local, national and
One of the most crucial events in the twentieth century was the fall of the Soviet Union also known as the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). The creation of the USSR was mainly the upshot from the leadership of Vladimir Lenin Ilyich in 1917. He was born in Simbirsk later known as Ulyanovsk in 1870. The USSR, during its prime, was one of the strongest most influential superpowers. Post World War II the United States and the USSR were the only superpowers left on the planet. The collapse of the Soviet empire came around 1989 to 1991 due to a more peaceful revolution unlike the revolution of 1917. During 1917 the Bolshevik party, later known as the Russian Communist Party, gained a large amount of power and prestige. GermanyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Stalin made an empty promise that he would hold free elections in countries that he controlled. Secretly he had agents begin to establish communist governments in these countries. First they take over the police and a rmed forces then drove out opposing political parties. This happened to Bulgaria, Albania, Hungary, Yugoslavia, East Germany, Poland, Romania, and later Czechoslovakia. These countries were satellite states or outside the Soviet Union, but governed by the Soviet Union. The British politician Winston Churchill called the line that divided the communist and noncommunist countries an Iron Curtain across the continent. The curtain consisted of East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, and of course the Soviet Union. With this the Soviet Union and the United States of America were the leading and only powers in the world. They were known as superpowers. So the Soviet Union saw fit to start progressing southward and westward to add to the Soviet Union, but the United States opposed this by giving economic aid to countries that were still traumatized by the war such as Italy and Greece and hoped the stronger countries would oppose Soviet f orce. However, Stalin knew not to mess with the United States because they had the most devastating weapon in the world, the nuclear bomb. Then in 1949 the Soviets accomplished their first nuclear bomb andShow MoreRelated Paper761 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In the 1790s members of the industry in both Paris and London were working on inventions to try to mechanise paper-making. In England John Dickenson produced the cylinder machine that was operational by 1809. Although useful for smaller enterprises, this lacked the large scale potential of the machine resulting from the invention of Nicholas-Louis Robert in Paris, which had a more complicated incubation period. The last of the early improvements to this machine were financed by the Fourdrinier brothersRead MoreOn Behalf of Paper1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFor centuries, people have read and learned on paper. It has loyally served man as the ideal vehicle for conveying our thoughts, feelings, and ideas. In recent years, an opponent h as risen: computers. The computer brought the world to our fingertips, to the palm of our hands, but is this competitor superior? Should we drop the written and printed empire that had dominated and quenched our thirst for knowledge for so long? Paper has served an ever-changing world well, constantly adapting and morphingRead More History of Paper1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The first historical mention of paper is 104 A.D. in China. The Empress of China at that time loved books and wanted to have a lot of them made. At the time everything was written on silk scrolls which were extremely expensive and time consuming to make. She wanted something cheaper and easier to use and so she asked one of her servants, a gentleman by the name of Tsi Lun to come up with an alternative. He worked for over nine years experimenting with different things and finally came up with hempRead MoreImportance Of Writing Paper870 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Writing papers have not always been my favorite thing to do. The main reason why I detested writing papers, was because I considered my English horrible. English is not my native language and learning it was difficult in my opinion. Especially, when as a child the only place where you could speak English was at school. Other than that, the only language I was allowed to speak at home was Spanish. Throughout the years I eventually got the hang of it, and at the beginning of fourth grade, I was placedRead MoreCharacteristics And Quality Of A Paper1062 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChoosing the right paper is more complex and it requires more work than just picking any expensive sheet and keeping your fingers crossed. To choose the right paper, you should not choose one based on the highest quality available, or the most expensive one. Instead, you should choose your paper based on the paper size options, durability, finishing, color, the paper weight, price, availability, opacity, and brightness. To choose between the function and quality of a p aper is not very easy. It isRead MoreSelf-Reflective Paper 838 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesfixed. Although it was a process, I finally got around to clearly understanding what the objectives were for English 1302 and how to apply them to my papers for this course. The first objective that is given in the syllabus is to meet the requirement of 20 pages total by the end of the course. The objective includes being able to revise and edit papers in a proper fashion. There was a time where revising and editing did not seem important, however, it can make a significant difference in a grade.Read MoreRecycling Waste Paper11594 Words Ã |Ã 47 PagesPaper recyclingÃ is the process of recovering waste paper and remaking it into new paper products. There are three categories of paper that can be used as feedstocks for making recycled paper: mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste.Ã Mill brokeÃ is paper trimmings and other paper scrap from the manufacture of paper, and is recycled internally in aÃ paper mill.Ã Pre-consumer wasteÃ is material which left the paper mill but was discarded before it was ready for consumer use.Ã Post-consumerÃ wasteRead MoreCarabao Grass Paper17210 Words Ã |Ã 69 PagesINTRODUCTION History Paper is believed to have originated in China sometime around A.D. 105. Its invention is credited to a Chinese artisan by the name of Tsai-Lun. Tsai Lun created the first type of paper by mixing macerated cellulose fiber with water. His method was simple. He beat rags to a pulp and diluted this with lots of water. He then drained the resultant mixture through a form of a sieve. The fibers matted together and, when it dried, formed what we know now as paper. This papermaking processRead MoreWriting a Great Research Paper1643 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesby Karl Weber, M.A. Writing a Great Research Paper: Picking an A+ Topic Study Guide Video Aided Instruction, Inc. Roslyn Heights, New York 1 #VAI-S1914 v1.0 This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc. For more information, call 1-800 -238-1512 or visit us online at videoaidedinstruction.com. This study guide should be used along with the following program published by Video Aided Instruction. The instructor works through the exercisesRead MoreReflection Paper On The Humanities Field1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Over the course of this semester each paper that was written helped to introduce me and my fellow classmates to different formatting, and genres of writing. A lot of knowledge was gained from writing these papers and I was able to compare and contrast the disciplinary writings and notice what makes each of them stand out. Reflecting back on these individual papers helps to express what I have learned. The first paper that was written was the humanities essay. The humanities essay helped to provide
The paper also examines the key issues and challenges in the effective implementation of ICTs in school education and provides suggestions to address these challenges and aid the implementation of ICTs in school education. An observation of international trends in application of ICTs in schools indicates that it is directly related to the development of schools and the teaching and learning environment. It is observed that new and emerging technologies are being integrated with the older technologies to make ICT applications in education more effective. Educators are also showing an increasing tendency to use mobile technology to enable access to education. There is a great deal of effort being expended around the world on the development of systems that will standardize the development of resources, catalog them, and store them. These include learning objects, which are digital Web-based resources created to support learning and can function as discrete entities or be linked in order to relate to explicit concepts or learning outcomes. Repositories are libraries where these digital resources are stored and provide teachers, students, and parents with information that is structured and organized to facilitate the finding and use of learning materials regardless of their source location. ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) The United NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) two and three are about achieving universal primary education and promoting gender equality, respectively. The MDGs in education are defined in terms of participation and completion of primary education by all children and the elimination of gender discrimination in education. Despite the continued efforts of the various Governments on universalizing the primary and elementary education, through a wide range of programmes and schemes, access to quality education continues to be an obstacle in the achievement of the education goals. For instance, in India, during 2004 Ã¢â¬â 05, while the Gross Enrolment Ratio for children enrolling in classes I to VIII was 97 percent, the Drop-out Rate for the same classes was as high as 46 percent. The situation is more worrying at the secondary education level (classes IX and X), where the enrollment is recorded at 53 percent and the Drop-out Rate is as high as 60 percent1. Efforts so far have addressed to a considerable degree, the concerns of equity as well as that of regional parity, however concerns of quality have not received adequate attention. Recognizing this, the Government of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s flagship education programme at the primary level the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) has streamlined its focus on Ã¢â¬ËqualityÃ¢â¬â¢. The situation is similar across the South Asia Selected Educational Statistics 2006 Ã¢â¬â 07; Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi 1 2 ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) 2010 region. With the target timelines for universalizing of primary and secondary education nearing, there is a sense of urgency in accomplishing the goals set therein. As is being increasingly articulated, if after spending large sums of money on programmes and schemes, countries have not become fully literate, it is time that innovative and cost effective methods be put in lace to address the problem of education in these countries2. While this is a larger problem and points to the need for reform in the educational systems of these countries at various levels pedagogical, curricular, as well as institutional, the emergence of various Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and their increasing acceptance and adoption by society provide unique opportunities and could potentially promote education on a large scale. While there is no conclusive research to prove that student achievement is higher when using ICTs in the education space, either in the developed or developing countries, there is a general consensus among practitioners and academics that integration of ICTs in education has a positive impact on the learning environment. It is understood that in diverse socio-economic and cultural contexts ICTs can be successfully employed to reach out to a greater number of students, including those to whom education was previously not easily accessible, and help in promoting learning, along with exposing students to the technical skills required for many occupations. ICTs act as and provide students and teachers with new tools that enable improved learning and teaching. Geographical distance no longer becomes an insurmountable obstacle to obtaining an education. It is no longer necessary for teachers and students to be physically in proximity, due to innovations of technologies such as teleconferencing and distance learning, which allow for synchronous learning. 3 ICTs in schools provide an opportunity to teachers to transform their practices by providing them with improved educational content and more effective teaching and learning methods. ICTs improve the learning process through the provision of more interactive educational materials that increase learner motivation and facilitate the easy acquisition of basic skills. The use of various multimedia devices such as television, videos, and computer applications offers more challenging and engaging learning environment for students of all ages. 4 A study conducted by the International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD) indicated that 80 percent of its participants felt more aware and empowered by their exposure to ICT in education, and 60 percent stated that the process of teaching as well as learning were directly and positively affected by the use of ICT. Twenty-first century teaching learning skills underscore the need to shift from the traditional teacher-centered pedagogy to more learner-centered methods. Education leadership, management, and governance can also be improved through ICT by enhancing educational content development and supporting administrative processes in schools and other educational establishments. 6 ICT in School Education in the Developed World In the developed countries, and the urban elites of advanced economies, twenty-first century education integrates technologies, engaging students in ways which were not previously possible, creating new learning and teaching possibilities, enhancing achievement and extending interactions with local and global communities. Students live in a world that has seen an information explosion and significant and rapid social and economic changes. ICT in School Education in the Developing World In the developing world, ICTs are used largely to increase access to and improve the relevance and quality of education. ICTs have demonstrated potential to increase the options, access, participation, and achievement for all students. The unprecedented speed and general availability of diverse and relevant information due to ICT, extends educational opportunities to the marginalized and vulnerable groups, among the other disadvantaged. ICTs in the developing world have the potential to enhance the education experience for children who: ? ? ? ? ? live in rural and remote-rural locations have special learning needs have physical disabilities constraining their access to schools have dropped out and/or have kept themselves out of school for various reasons. aim for excellence and fail to get satisfied in the current system Teachers and learners in the developing world are no longer solely dependent on physical media such as printed textbooks which are often times outdated. With todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology, one even has the ability to access experts, professionals, and leaders in their fields of interest, around the world at any given time. 7 In India, various ICTs have been employed over the years to promote primary and secondary education. These include radio, satellite based, one-way and interactive television, and the Internet. However, there have been enormous geographic and demographic disparities in their use. Some states in the country currently have an enabling environment in place that allows for a greater use 6 7 Haddad and Jurich, Ã¢â¬Å"ICT for Education: Potential and PotencyÃ¢â¬ Ibid 4 ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) 2010 of ICTs for education, whereas other states lack such an environment making the use of ICTs for this purpose very sporadic. 8 It is also important to keep in mind that ICTs in education are a potential double-edged swordÃ¢â¬â while ICTs offer educators, tools to extend education to hitherto naccessible geographic regions, and to deprived children and empower teachers and students through information, there is also the danger that such technologies may further widen the gap between the educational haves and havenots. However, technology is only a tool and the success of ICTs in enhancing the delivery of quality education to the needy, without widening the gap, will depend largely on policy level interventions that are directed toward how ICTs must be deployed in school education. The Governments in each of the countries in the South Asia region are now keen and committed on exploring the uses of ICTs for school education. Therefore, Government policies lately reflect their realization of the importance of integrating ICT use and the promotion of quality education enabled through ICTs. The creation of educational networks offer substantial economies of scale and scope, when attempting to improve the quality of education and seek to standardize quality across the system. Hence, Governments are investing in infrastructure facilities that link schools/educational institutions and resource centers. However, despite administrators and experts alike recognizing the potential of ICT in improving access to quality education, the utilization of ICTs in school education in the South Asian countries is still not at a very advanced stage. The following table classifies countries in the Asia Pacific region based on their appreciation of ICTs and the availability of ICTs. It shows that while appreciation of ICTs is high in the South Asia region, their actual availability for utilization is low. It offers benefits across the spectrum of learning venues, from the remote learner in some form of distance education, to the teacher and learners face-to-face in a classroom. 11 ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) 2010 Teachers and Online Learning Activities ICT is an important source, which teachers may use to keep themselves abreast of emerging issues, share knowledge, and reach out to students. Several portals are being developed where teachers can network and share information including best practices. In India, the Sakshat portal developed by the Government of India provides teachers an opportunity to connect with each other and share experiences. The Teachers of India, an online portal developed by the Azim Premji Foundation and the National Knowledge Commission, was created with the objective of providing a forum for teachers to freely interact with each other across languages, facilitate the sharing of insights and best practices of teachers across the country and provide access to resources, information, and new experiments in education from all over the world in all Indian languages. Key Issues and Concerns There are many challenges in implementing ICTs effectively in existing schools. Policy-makers need to give ICTs adequate priority and attention so as to reap the benefits of deploying ICTs in school education. Students from rural locations or impoverished communities often tend to slip under the radar so that they do not have even basic access to ICT. Given that a number of schools still do not even have appropriate classrooms, computers, telecommunication facilities and Internet services, ICT continues to be a distant dream. The existing shortage of quality teachers further compounds the problem. In developing countries, budgetary allocations for deploying ICTs in school education are typically limited, and given the high initial costs of setting up ICT systems, the cost factor works as a further deterrent. Shifting the existing focus from traditional educational models to an ICT-based education system is bound to be met with constraints and roadblocks. Some key issues and concerns that need to be addressed in order to create an ICT friendly environment in schools, especially in countries in the South Asian region, are identified later. Availability of Infrastructure to Support ICT A countryÃ¢â¬â¢s educational technology infrastructure sits on top of the national telecommunications and information technology infrastructure. Availability of adequate infrastructure to support the deployment of ICTs in schools is a tremendous challenge that schools in the region currently face. Apart from the high initial cost of purchasing and setting up the requisite infrastructure, the maintenance and upgrade costs, as well as the cost and effort of supporting such infrastructure are also roadblocks to the successful usage of ICTs in schools, especially in poor and remote areas. Before any ICT-based programme is launched, policy-makers and planners must carefully consider the following: ? In the first place, a basic requirement is whether appropriate rooms or buildings available to house the technology? In countries where there are many old school buildings, extensive retrofitting to ensure proper electrical wiring, heating/cooling and ventilation, and safety and security would be needed. 12 ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) ? 2010 ? ? Another basic requirement is the availability of electricity and telephony. In countries within this South Asian region, large areas are still without a reliable supply of electricity and the nearest telephones are miles away. Power situation in rural and remote-rural areas even in some advanced countries in this region is undependable, and this affects the functioning of any ICT initiative. Power cuts with different power cut schedules each week play havoc with the timetables. Power outages and fluctuations add to the high maintenance costs of computer hardware. Policy-makers should also look at the ubiquity of different types of ICT in the country in general, and in the educational system (at all levels) in particular. For instance, a basic requirement for computer-based or online learning is access to computers in schools, communities, and households, as well as affordable Internet service. Insufficient access to computers is one of the main obstacles to the spread of ICT usage in school education. This is more so in the case of rural areas where the school is often the only access point for computers. Moreover, system software is expensive and prone to upgrades and requires resources put aside for new versions and upgrades. Operating System (OS) itself adds to the cost burden of the hardware. Although this will require massive investments in the infrastructure, it is nevertheless essential in order to guarantee equal access and to overcome the digital divide. 14 Strong, sustainable partnerships between the Government, private sector and civil society must be built to offset costs and mitigate the complexities of the integration of ICT in education systems (refer Annexure II for details on Public-Private Partnerships [PPPs]). Availability of Funds to Implement ICTs Given the current budgetary and resource constraints of various Governments, a widespread investment in ICTs in education is probably not possible in most developing countries. It is, therefore, critically important to better understand the cost-benefit equation of the wide range of ICT options and uses in order to effectively target-spend the scarce resources. Economies of scale are achievable in distance education, although such Programmes typically require large up-front investments. Some of these costs may be shifted from the public sector to the individual users, but this in itself raises significant equity and access issues. Capacity Building of Teachers In most of schools in the subcontinent, the teachers are overloaded, less motivated and inadequately trained, and often deal with inconvenient working conditions. The use of ICTs in the classroom or in distance education does not diminish the role of the teacher; neither does it automatically change teaching practices. In such an atmosphere, building the capacity of teachers so that they are equipped to deal with using ICTs in classrooms is a challenge. Resistance to Change International Institute for Communication and Development, ICTs for Education: Impact and Lessons Learned from IICD-Supported Activities. 14 13 ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) 2010 Resistance is commonly witnessed while attempting to introduce ICTs into schools, very often from the teachers themselves, since they may be of the opinion that they shall become redundant once technology comes in or due to their perception that it is too late for them to adapt to a new environment. Educators themselves may be skeptical about the effectiveness of using ICTs in school education. Lack of Awareness There is a general lack of awareness about the utility of ICTs in education, as well as about the ICTs at our disposal and how they can be accessed and utilized economically and effectively. This lack of awareness and knowledge about ICTs and their use in education, even on the part of policy makers, administrators and educators, makes it particularly difficult to deploy ICTs in the field of school education. Another critical issue with the usage of ICT in schools is the implementation of new technologies without having analyzed their appropriateness, applicability and impact on various environments and contexts. In most countries, particularly the least developed ones, they must learn from the experiences of others, but must also use technology to respond to their own needs and not just follow trends. 15 Internet Usage While the Internet contains tremendous potential for education, as described in the sections earlier, it also has its own pitfalls. For one, providing all the students with Internet access is a very expensive proposition for most Government schools. This is more so in the case of rural centers and remote areas, where Internet connections are bound to be erratic, if available at all. A different challenge altogether when it comes to Internet usage is the effort involved in monitoring the students usage of the Internet to ensure that they do not visit educationally irrelevant and socially undesirable sites, thus detracting from the intended objective. Language Barriers English is the dominant language of the Internet. An estimated 80 percent of online content is in English. A large proportion of the educational software produced in the world market is in English. For developing countries in the South Asian region where English language proficiency is not high, especially outside metropolitan areas, this represents a serious barrier to maximizing the educational benefits of the World Wide Web. Monitoring and evaluation Many of the issues and challenges associated with ICTs in education initiatives are known by policymakers, donor staff, and educators. However, data on the nature and complexity of these issues remains limited because of the lack of good monitoring and evaluation tools and processes. Where evaluation data is available much of the work is seen to suffer from important biases. Another Patti Swarts, Ã¢â¬Å"Main Issues, Possible Solutions and Opportunities for ICTs,Ã¢â¬ Global e-Schools and Community Initiatives, http://www. gesci. org 15 14 ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) 2010 problem in this area is the lack of a common set of indicators for ICTs in education. And, where data has been collected, it is often quantitative data related to infrastructure (number of computers, for example) rather than data that can help policy-makers gauge the impact of ICT interventions on student learning. 16 If ICTs are to become effective and integral tools in education, and if accountability is to be demonstrated to donors and stakeholders, monitoring and evaluation must be a priority area of focus (refer Annexure I for details on Monitoring Evaluation). Key Learnings Although there is great opportunity for improvement in school education at many levels through the use of ICTs, the road to achieving it is not easy. It will take continued commitment from all stakeholders involved to make any kind of substantial and sustainable change. The following broadbased suggestions may act as a basis for building a long-term roadmap to bringing ICTs to schools, and students at large in the South Asia region. A key to succeed in this endeavor is to adopt a comprehensive, end-to-end, systematic approach, with a phased and learn-as-you-go strategy for implementation, that can be adjusted to adapt to the specific needs and a changing environment. Government Support Government cooperation is necessary for ICT programmes to have substantial impact and be sustainable. In the attempt to reevaluate the education delivery system and curriculum of countries to include ICT, Governments have to consider the social context in which they are implementing this new phenomenon. The realities of individual countries and the disparities within and across their geographies, including their limitations say, the language barrier, should be considered and the availability of ICT should be made according to the needs and desires of the countries in order to facilitate appropriate learning and local ownership of knowledge. 17 As discussed in the essay on policy coherence, governments need to adopt a coherent national policy framework, an effective ICT for education ecosystem, not just within the education field but also encompassing other complementing and enabling domains, which could ensure a childÃ¢â¬â¢s overall development and the CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s larger objectives. Government policies must demonstrate political will and champion the integration of ICT purposes and be in line with national development goals and frameworks. In countries where implementation capacity is weak and misuse of resources can be a major problem, ICT can further enable the country to enhance its capacity building efforts and reduce the opportunity for corruption. 18 16 Trucano, Michael. 2005. Knowledge Maps: ICT in Education. Washington, DC: infoDev/World Bank. Available at: https://www. infodev. org/en/Publications. 8. html K. Toure, M. L. Diarra, T. Karsenti, and S. Tchameni-Ngamo, Ã¢â¬Å"Reflections on Cultural Imperialism and Pedagogical Possibilities Emerging from Youth Encounters with Internet in AfricaÃ¢â¬ in ICT and Changing Mindsets in Education, eds. K. Toure, T. M. S. Tchombe, and T. Karsenti (Bamako, Mali: ERNWACA, 2008). 18 Muwanga, Ã¢â¬Å"High Cost of Internet Connectivity in Africa: How Do We Achieve Mobile Telephony Success Story? Ã¢â¬ 17 15 ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) 2010 Not only are national policies necessary but the Government also should assist in building organizational and institutional capacity to effectively deal with the complexities of integrating and implementing ICT in school education. Ministries of Education need to reconsider how they institutionalize positions of responsibility for ICT. The ICT unitÃ¢â¬â¢s roles relate directly to improvement of teaching and learning using ICT, and the mix of skills required differs substantially from that of a traditional IT unit, providing infrastructural systems support. Therefore, appropriate considerations have to be taken to establish the right kind of institutions and positions to take the mission forward. In the longer term, the active participation of the Government is essential to ensure the sector-wide introduction of ICT4E. Government involvement is critical to source additional investments in the ICT infrastructure, to integrate ICT in the curriculum, and to facilitate the widespread diffusion of materials. 19 Creating Community-Based ICT Facilities In 1999, the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) undertook an initiative to improve rural communitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ access to ICT facilities. This involved selecting 800 Gonokendros (multipurpose learning centers) and equipping them with computers so that rural communities become familiar with usage of ICT and have access to a wide range of reading materials and resources, educational and non-educational. The concept of community-based ICT facilities may be expanded at the school level to increase school studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ access to ICT-based materials. For example, one ICT centre may be created for every ive schools in the village/block, and this centre may be equipped with computers, television, radio, or other technologies. A timetable may be allocated so that each school has access to the ICT centre for one day of the week. Within each school again, different classes may be allocated different periods for accessing the ICT centre. The challenges with implementing such a scheme, is that the distance of the centre from the various schools that warrant the need for firming up the mode of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ mobility and the frequency of such mobility to access the ICT facility and others. Moreover, the cost of renting or buying land and a building for setting up the ICT centre is another deterrent. However, this concept of school communities using common ICT facilities is a feasible way in which to introduce students from rural communities to ICTs. Prioritizing and Planning Access to Remote Areas Special consideration should be given to ICT connectivity and accessibility for educational purposes. Bandwidth and spectrum of radio and television wavelengths should be allocated for education. Planning for connectivity infrastructure and regulations should promote and facilitate educational use of ICT. The trends toward convergence and new mobile platforms for InternetInternational Institute for Communication and Development, ICTs for Education: Impact and Lessons Learned from IICD-Supported Activities. 19 6 ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) 2010 connectivity need to be fully exploited through innovative policies and partnerships that can help lower cost and expand access. Regional networks of collaboration among countries where language and cultural context are simila r could serve as a platform to promote educational quality and equality in an effort to bridge the digital divide. Greater exchange and collaboration in the production and management of educational resources would lower expenses in the development of materials as well as increase the amount of educational content available to teachers and students across the region. 0 Adopting ICTs Suited to the Context Given that Internet access is a problem for most schools, especially in rural areas, educators and administrators needs to consider the possibility of establishing Local Area Networks (LANs) in schools. Content could be hosted on school LANs, instead of trying to make them available on the Internet. A digital library on a server on the LAN would be a valuable asset, as it can store all types of digital content. Interactive multimedia material can also be hosted on the LAN at a much lower cost than on the Internet. This also has the added advantage of enabling students to access Programmes at their convenience, instead of having to adhere to a scheduled telecast. Given that India has invested significantly in educational television and already has a commendable satellite television infrastructure, schools should focus on leveraging this technology. Some Indian educational channels are planning to switch to DTH soon, and it is very practical for them to do this. Due to the rapid fall in the cost of servers and storage, it is possible to record thousands of hours of TV programmes in digital form onto a server and make it available on demand from every PC on the LAN. 21 Focus on Capacity Building The use of ICTs in education calls for a fundamental shift in the way content is designed and delivered, as well as for teamwork and collaborative practices. New technologies cannot be imposed without enabling teachers and learners to understand these fundamental shifts. Ongoing training is necessary for the trainers in institutions and organizations who are engaged in the design of curriculum, teaching materials, and delivery of ICT-enabled education. At the same time, middle-level managers, both in the public service and the NGO sector, need to understand the pedagogy of learning through ICT and the management models that are required. Given that teachers themselves are not comfortable using ICTs for teaching purposes, it is critical that there is a focus on capacity building of teachers so that they are equipped adequately to use ICTs in the classrooms. A locally-accessible instructor/trainer may be hired to provide training to the teachers on the usage of computers and Internet, and other ICTs that are proposed to be used in Ã¢â¬ËInformation and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Education for DevelopmentÃ¢â¬â¢, Global Alliance for ICT and Development, White Paper July 2009. 21 Srinivasan Ramani, International Institute for Information Technology, Bangalore, e-Discussion with Community of Practitioners at UN Solution Exchange (Communities of Education and ICT for Development). 20 17 ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) 2010 the school. Further, the contracts of procurement of ICT products could include among other, a short-term handholding feature with respect to familiarization and effective usage of the facilities. It is also suggested that the Teachers Training Institutes (TTIs) shall ensure ICT-based teaching and learning methodologies be integrated into the educational streams and build capabilities to the next-generation teachers with the capacity to handle ICT facilities with ease. Support of school administrators and, in some cases, the community, is critical if ICTs are to be used effectively. In addition, teachers must have adequate access to functioning computers (or other technologies) and sufficient technical support. Shifting pedagogies, redesigning curriculum and assessment tools, and providing more autonomy to local schools all contribute to the optimal use of ICTs in education. Creative Solutions to Computer Shortages Computer-based ICT interventions require significant investment in hardware. In addition, the expected active life of a computer is about 5 years, and as the hardware industry develops more sophisticated products, the software adapts to the top-of-the-line products. Computer recycling is an ecologically sound alternative to this problem. A growing number of not-for-profit organizations are dedicated to the tasks of collecting, refurbishing, and finding new homes for old computers. 22 In most South Asian countries, it has been found that computer usage is most cost effective when placed in common areas such as cyber cafes, community resource centers, and so on. Alternative Power Sources Given the situation of power shortages in rural areas, and the effect of power shortage on the usage of computers and other technologies in schools, the Governments should actively promote the usage of alternate sources of power. This ecologically friendly solution will also ensure a steady power supply to schools in rural areas. For example, the Bangladesh National ICT Policy 2009 highlights the imperative of providing access to ICTs to all schools and using alternate sources of energy such as solar panels if required. Financing ICT Investments Financing mechanisms for ICTs in education initiatives are quite varied. Due to the high up-front costs and large recurrent costs, countries and communities typically employ varied models of financing and cost recovery mechanisms. Public-private partnerships and user fees are important components of financing ICTs in education in many countries, although more research is needed to determine the impact and effectiveness of these mechanisms (refer Annexure II for details on PublicPrivate Partnerships [PPPs]). Wadi D. Haddad and Sonia Jurich Ã¢â¬ËICT for Education: Prerequisites and ConstraintsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËTechnologies for Education: Potentials, Parameters and ProspectsÃ¢â¬â¢ UNESCO and AED 2002. 22 18 ICT in School Education (Primary and Secondary) 2010 Conclusion A carefully thought-out, integrated approach to introducing computers and the Internet into learning environments in developing countries can have a significant impact on teaching and learning. In countries where learning resources are limited and teachers never dream of having a fully stocked library, let alone the Internet, teachers and students have been introduced to a new world of learning. As a result, those with access to ICTs have been greatly empowered, and now believe they can compete in a global knowledge-based economy because they know that their knowledge, ideas, culture, and passions are as valuable as any in the world. In order to more effectively prepare students to participate in ICT-driven education, greater commitments and willingness to share and adopt innovative solutions are needed from all aspects of societyÃ¢â¬âfrom Governments, the private sector, communities, donors, parents, and students. Schools should be transformed into active learning environments open to their communities; telecommunication and power infrastructure policies should focus on schools as starting points for rural transformation; teachers and students must be empowered to be creative agents for change in their schools; and leaders must embrace a vision that will prepare their youth for tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s challenges. 23 Despite the challenges outlined in the paper, ICTs are being increasingly used in education in both the developed and developing world, in order to reach out to children from poor and remote communities, provide them with a quality education, and in general equip both teachers and students with a wider range of educational resource and enable them with greater flexibility. However, the growth and success of ICTs in education depends on the extent to which the issues and challenges outlined in this paper are addressed. There is a critical need to document every effort for the benefit of the various stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â decision-makers, institutions, NGOs and civil society. It is necessary to know what works and what does not, and what the implications are for policy making, planning, and implementation. Specifically, it needs to be understood that any new technology comes not merely with hardware and software, but with a learning and teaching style and grammar of its own, and that management practices need to be adapted in order to use the technologies effectively. ICTs are, ultimately, only physical tools, which by themselves cannot bring benefits to students, teachers and communities at large. Therefore the unique contextual realities of this region, including, primarily, the initiative and impetus of the various countries and its constituents, the involvement of private companies and NGOs, and the level of infrastructure, play determining roles in creating enabling environments promoting the use of ICTs for primary and secondary education. 23 Robert J Hawkins Ã¢â¬ËTen Lessons for ICT and Education in the Developing World.